Forty-Four Juvenile Thieves. Their Characters and Home-Life by John Bowlby. The Problem: Methods of Research. It is not a very well know fact that for nine out . Bowlby: 44 Thieves Aim: To establish a cause-and-effect relationship between maternal deprivation and emotional maladjustment based on his observations of . Bowlby was very much influenced by ethological theory in general, but especially by. Lorenz’s () study of 44 Thieves Study (Bowlby, ). John Bowlby.
|Published (Last):||5 January 2014|
|PDF File Size:||8.8 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.16 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Saul McLeodpublished John Bowlby – was a psychoanalyst like Freud and believed that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood. Lorenz showed that attachment was innate in young ducklings and therefore has a survival value.
Bowlby believed that attachment behaviors are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation, insecurity, and fear. Bowlbyalso postulated that the fear of strangers represents an important survival mechanism, built in by nature. Babies are born with the tendency to display certain innate behaviors called social releasers which help ensure proximity and contact with the mother or attachment figure e.
During the evolution of the human species, it would have been the babies who stayed close to their mothers that would have survived to have children of their own. Bowlby hypothesized that both infants and mothers have evolved a biological need to stay in contact with each other. These attachment behaviors initially function like fixed action patterns and all share the same function.
The determinant of attachment is not food but care and responsiveness. Bowlby suggested that a child would initially form only one attachment and that the attachment figure acted as a secure base for exploring the world. The attachment relationship acts as a prototype for all future social relationships so disrupting it can have severe consequences.
A child has an innate i. Although Bowlby did not rule out the possibility of other attachment figures for a child, he did believe that there should be a primary bond which was much more important than any other usually the mother. Bowlby believes that this attachment is qualitatively different from any subsequent attachments. Bowlby argues that the relationship with the mother is somehow different altogether from other relationships.
Essentially, Bowlby suggested that the nature of monotropy attachment conceptualized as being a vital and close bond with just one attachment figure meant that a failure to initiate, or a breakdown of, the maternal attachment would lead to serious negative consequences, possibly including affectionless psychopathy.
The child behaves in ways that elicits contact or proximity to the caregiver. Crying, smiling, and, locomotion, are examples of these signaling behaviors. A child should receive the continuous care of this single most important attachment figure for approximately the first two years of life. Bowlby claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i.
If the attachment figure is broken or disrupted during the critical two year period, the child will suffer irreversible long-term consequences of this maternal deprivation. This risk continues until the age of five. Bowlby used the term maternal deprivation to refer to the separation or loss of the mother as well as failure to develop an attachment. Affectionless psychopathy is an inability to show affection or concern for others.
Such individuals act on impulse with little regard for the consequences of their actions. For example, showing no guilt for antisocial behavior. Robertson and Bowlby believe that short-term separation from an attachment figure leads to distress i.
The child cries, screams and protests angrily when the parent leaves. They will try to cling on to the parent to stop them leaving. If separation continues the child will start to engage with other people again. They will reject the caregiver on their return and show strong signs of anger. This internal working model is a cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self, and others.
According to Bowlbythe primary caregiver acts as a prototype for future relationships via the internal working model. There are three main features of the internal working model: John Bowlby believed that the relationship between the infant and its mother during the first five years of life was most crucial to socialization.
He believed that disruption of this primary relationship could lead to a higher incidence of juvenile delinquency, emotional difficulties, and antisocial behavior. To test his hypothesis, he studied 44 adolescent juvenile delinquents in a child guidance clinic. To investigate the long-term effects of maternal deprivation on people in order to see whether delinquents have suffered deprivation.
According to the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis, breaking the maternal bond with the child during the early stages of its life is likely to have serious effects on its intellectual, social and emotional development.
Between and an opportunity sample of 88 children was selected from the clinic where Bowlby worked. Of these, 44 were juvenile thieves and had been referred to him because of their stealing. The psychologist and social worker made separate reports.
A psychiatrist Bowlby then conducted an initial interview with the child and accompanying parent e. None of the control group were affectionless psychopaths. Only 2 of the control group had experienced a prolonged separation in their first 5 years.
He diagnosed this as a condition and called it Affectionless Psychopathy. According to Bowlby, this condition involves a lack of emotional development, characterized by a lack of concern for others, lack of guilt and inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships.
The supporting evidence that Bowlby provided was in the form of clinical interviews of, and retrospective data on, those who had and had not been separated from their primary caregiver. This meant that Bowlby was asking the participants to look back and recall separations. These memories may not be accurate. Bowlby designed and conducted the experiment himself.
This may have lead to experimenter bias. Particularly as he was responsible for making the diagnosis of affectionless psychopathy.
Another criticism of the 44 thieves study was that it concluded affectionless psychopathy was caused by maternal deprivation. This is correlational data and as such only shows a relationship between these two variables.
Indeed, other external variables, such as family conflict, parental income, education, etc. The study was vulnerable to researcher bias. Bowlby conducted the psychiatric assessments himself and made the diagnoses of Affectionless Psychopathy. Consequently, his findings may have unconsciously influenced by his own expectations.
This potentially undermines their validity. They studied women who had lost mothers, through separation or death, before they were They found that loss of their mother through separation or death doubles the risk of depressive and anxiety disorders in adult women. The rate of depression was the highest in women whose mothers had died before the child reached the age of 6.
Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
Although Bowlby may not dispute that young children form multiple attachments, he still contends that the attachment to the mother is unique in that it is the first to appear and remains the strongest of all.
However, on both of these counts, the evidence seems to suggest otherwise. Rutter stresses that the quality of the attachment bond is the most important factor, rather than just deprivation in the critical period. Bowlby used the term maternal deprivation to refer to the separation or loss of the mother as well as the failure to develop an attachment.
Are the effects of maternal deprivation as dire as Bowlby suggested?
Michael Rutter wrote a book called Maternal Deprivation Re-assessed. In the book, he suggested that Bowlby may have oversimplified the concept of maternal deprivation.
Bowlby used the term ‘maternal deprivation’ to refer to separation from an attached figure, loss of an attached figure and failure boslby develop an attachment to any figure.
44 Juvenile Thieves: Bowlby ()
These each have different effects, argued Rutter. In particular, Rutter distinguished between privation and deprivation. Michael Rutter argued that if a child fails to develop an emotional bondthis is privationwhereas deprivation refers to the loss of or damage to an attachment.
From his survey of research on privation, Rutter proposed that it is likely to lead initially to clinging, dependent behavior, attention-seeking and indiscriminate friendliness, then as the child matures, an inability to keep rules, form lasting relationships, or feel guilt. He also found evidence of anti-social behavior, affectionless psychopathy, and disorders of language, intellectual development and tyieves growth.
Rutter argues that these problems are not due solely to the lack of attachment to a mother figure, as Bowlby claimed, but to factors such as the lack of intellectual stimulation and social experiences which attachments normally provide. In addition, such problems can be overcome later in the child’s development, with the right kind of care. This suggested that they were suffering from privation, rather than deprivation, which Rutter suggested was far more deleterious to the children.
This led to a very important study on the long-term effects of privation, carried out by Hodges and Tizard Bowlby’s Maternal Deprivation is, however, supported by Harlow’s research with monkeys. He showed that monkeys reared in isolation from their mother suffered emotional and social problems in older age.
The monkey’s never formed an attachment privation and as such grew up to be aggressive and had problems interacting with other monkeys. Konrad Lorenz supports Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis as the attachment process of imprinting is an innate process. Bowlby assumed that physical separation on its own could lead to deprivation but Rutter argues that it is the disruption of the attachment rather than the physical separation.
This shows the influence of social factors. Bowlby did not take into account the quality of the substitute care. Deprivation can be avoided if there is good emotional care after separation. As he believed the mother to be the most central care giver and that this care should be given on a continuous basis an obvious implication is that mothers should not go out to work.
There have been many attacks on this claim: Mourning or early inadequate care?
Reexamining the relationship of maternal loss in childhood with adult depression and anxiety. Development and Psychopathology, 4 03 Their characters and home life. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 25 Maternal care and mental health. World Health Organization Monograph. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16 3 ,