Ayn Rand was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two .. In , Rand moved from Los Angeles to New York City, where she. Estas son las enseñanzas de la principal filosofía del siglo XX, el objetivismo. Se trata del Presidente del Consejo del Ayn Rand Institute de los Estados. Objetivismo: La filosofía de Ayn Rand Ayn Rand: Philosophy, Objectivism, Self Interest (full interview with Yaron Brook) ¿Cuál es el Propósito de la Vida?.

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Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand. Rand first yan Objectivism in her fiction, most notably The Fountainhead and Atlas Shruggedand later in non-fiction essays and books. Rand described Objectivism as “the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute”.

Objectivism’s central tenets are that reality exists independently of consciousnessthat human beings have direct contact with reality through sense perception see Direct and indirect realismthat one can attain objective knowledge from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive logicthat the proper moral purpose of one’s life is the pursuit of one’s own happiness see Rational egoismthat the only social system consistent with this morality is one that displays full respect for individual rights embodied in any capitalismand that the role of art in human life is to transform humans’ metaphysical ideas by selective reproduction of reality into a physical form—a work of art—that one can comprehend and to which one can respond emotionally.

Academic philosophers have mostly ignored or rejected Rand’s philosophy. Rand originally expressed objefivismo philosophical ideas in her novels, most notably, Randd Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged. The name “Objectivism” derives from the idea that human knowledge and values are objective: Rand characterized Objectivism as “a philosophy for living on earth”, grounded in objetiviemo, and aimed at defining human nature and the nature of the world in which we live.

My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own objetivizmo as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute.

Rand’s philosophy begins with three axioms: An axiom is a proposition that defeats its opponents by the fact that they have to accept it and use it in the process of any attempt to objetkvismo it.

It is proof that they are axiomsthat they are at the base of knowledge and thus inescapable. Rand held that existence is the perceptually self-evident fact at the base of all other knowledge, i.

The axiom of existence is grasped in differentiating something from nothing, while the law of identity is grasped in differentiating one thing from another, i. As Rand wrote, “A leaf Rand argued that consciousness is “the faculty of perceiving that wyn exists. Any other approach Rand termed “the primacy of consciousness”, including any variant of metaphysical subjectivism or theism.

Objectivist philosophy derives its explanations of action and causation objetivismoo the axiom of identity, calling causation “the zyn of identity applied to action. The way entities act is caused by the specific nature or “identity” of those entities; if they were different they would act differently.

As with the other axioms, an implicit understanding of causation is derived from one’s primary observations of causal connections among entities even before it is verbally identified, and serves as the basis of further knowledge. According to Rand, attaining knowledge objwtivismo what is given in perception requires both volition or the exercise of free will and adherence to a specific method of validation through observation, concept-formation, and the application of inductive and deductive reasoning.

For example, a belief in dragons, however sincere, does not mean reality contains any dragons. A process of proof identifying the basis in reality of a claimed item of knowledge is necessary to establish its truth.

Objectivist epistemology begins with the principle that “consciousness is identification”. This is understood to be a direct consequence of the metaphysical principle that “existence is identity. The distinguishing characteristic of logic the art of non-contradictory identification indicates the nature of the actions actions of consciousness required to achieve a correct identification and their goal knowledge —while omitting the length, complexity or specific steps of the process of logical inference, as well as the nature of the particular cognitive problem involved in any given instance of using logic.

According to Rand, consciousness possesses a specific and finite identity, just like everything else that exists; therefore, it must operate by a specific method of validation.


An item of knowledge cannot be “disqualified” by being arrived at by a specific process in a particular form. Thus, for Rand, the fact that consciousness must itself possess identity implies the rejection of both universal skepticism based on the “limits” of consciousness, as well as any claim to revelation, emotion or faith based belief.

Objectivist epistemology maintains that all knowledge is ultimately based on perception. For example, optical illusions are errors in the conceptual identification of what is seen, not errors in sight itself. Perceptual error, therefore, is not possible. Rand consequently rejected epistemological skepticismas she holds that the skeptics’ claim to knowledge “distorted” by the form or the means of perception is impossible.

Objetivismo y Subjetivismo by Mariana Serna on Prezi

The Objectivist theory of perception distinguishes between the form and object. The form in which an organism perceives is determined by the physiology of its sensory systems. Whatever form the organism perceives it in, what it perceives—the object of perception—is reality. An “unprocessed” knowledge would be a knowledge acquired without means of cognition. The aspect of epistemology given the most elaboration by Rand is the theory of concept-formation, which she presented in Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology.

She argued that concepts are formed by a process of measurement omission. Peikoff described her view as follows:. To form a concept, one mentally isolates a group of concretes of distinct perceptual unitson the basis of observed similarities which distinguish them from all other known concretes similarity is ‘the relationship between two or more existents which possess the same characteristic sbut in different measure or degree’ ; then, by a process of omitting the particular measurements of these concretes, one integrates them into a single new mental unit: The integration is completed and retained by the selection of a perceptual symbol a word to designate it.

According to Rand, “[T]he term ‘measurements omitted’ does not mean, in this context, that measurements are regarded as non-existent; it means that measurements exist, but are not specified.

Dl measurements must exist is xyn essential part of the process. Rand argued that concepts are hierarchically organized. Concepts such as ‘dog,’ which bring together “concretes” available in perception, can be differentiated into the concepts of ‘dachshund,’ ‘poodle,’ etc.

Abstract concepts such as ‘animal’ can be further integrated, via “abstraction from obietivismo, into such concepts as ‘living thing. A young child differentiates dogs from cats and chickens, but need not explicitly differentiate them from deep-sea tube worms, or rznd other types of animals not yet known to him, to form a concept ‘dog.

Because of its view of concepts as “open-ended” classifications that go well beyond the characteristics included in their past or current definitions, Objectivist epistemology rejects the analytic-synthetic distinction as a false dichotomy [37] and denies the possibility of a priori knowledge.

Rand rejected “feeling” as sources of knowledge. Rand acknowledged the importance of emotion for human beings, but she maintained that emotions are a consequence of the conscious or subconscious ideas that a person already accepts, not a means of achieving awareness of reality.

She defined faith as “the acceptance of allegations without evidence or proof, either apart from or against the evidence of one’s senses and reason Mysticism is the claim to some non-sensory, non-rational, non-definable, non-identifiable means of knowledge, such as objrtivismo ‘intuition,’ ‘revelation,’ or any form of ‘just knowing.

Faith, for Rand, is not a “short-cut” to knowledge, but a “short-circuit” destroying it. Objectivism acknowledges the facts that human beings have limited knowledge, are vulnerable to error, and do not instantly understand all of the implications of their knowledge. Rand argued that neither is possible because the senses provide the material of knowledge while conceptual processing is also needed to establish knowable propositions.

The philosopher John Hosperswho was influenced by Rand and shared her moral and political views, disagreed with her over issues of epistemology. Psychology professor Robert L. Campbell says the relationship between Objectivist obketivismo and cognitive science remains unclear because Rand made claims about human randd and its development which belong to psychology, yet Rand also argued that philosophy is logically prior to psychology and in no way dependent on it. The philosophers Randall Dipert and Roderick Long have ogjetivismo that Objectivist epistemology conflates the perceptual process by which judgments are formed with the way in which they are to be justified, thereby leaving it unclear how sensory data can validate propositionally structured judgments.

Objectivism includes an extensive treatment of ethical concerns.

Objectivism (Ayn Rand) – Wikipedia

Rand defines morality as “a code of values to guide man’s choices and actions—the choices and actions that determine the purpose and the course of his life. The existence of inanimate matter is unconditional, the existence of life is not: It is only a living organism that faces a constant alternative: Rand argued that the primary focus of man’s free will is in the choice: In any hour and issue of his life, man is free to think or to evade that effort.


Thinking requires a state of full, focused awareness. The act of focusing one’s consciousness is volitional. Man can focus his mind to a full, active, purposefully directed awareness of reality—or he can unfocus it and let himself drift in a semiconscious daze, merely reacting to any chance stimulus of the immediate moment, at the mercy of his undirected sensory-perceptual mechanism and of any random, associational connections it might happen to make.

Whether in fact a person’s actions promote and fulfill his own life or not is a question of fact, as it is with all other organisms, but whether a person will act to promote his well-being is up to him, not hard-wired into his physiology.

Says Rand, “Man’s mind is his basic tool of survival. Life is given to him, survival is not. His body is given to him, its sustenance is not.

His mind is given to him, its content is not. To remain alive he must act and before he can act he must know the nature and purpose of his action. He cannot obtain his food without knowledge of food and of the way to obtain it. He cannot dig a ditch—or build a cyclotron—without a knowledge of his aim and the means to achieve it. To remain alive, he must think.

The primary virtue in Objectivist ethics is rationalityas Rand meant it “the recognition and acceptance of reason as one’s only source of knowledge, one’s only judge of values and one’s only guide to action.

The purpose of a moral code, Rand held, is to provide the principles by reference to which man can achieve the values his survival requires.

Objectivism (Ayn Rand)

If [man] chooses to live, a rational ethics will tell him what principles of action are required to implement his choice. If he does not choose to live, nature will take its course. Reality confronts a tand with a great many “must’s”, but all of them are conditional: Rand’s explanation of values presents the view that an individual’s primary moral obligation is aym achieve his own well-being—it is for his life and his self-interest that an individual ought to adhere to a moral code.

The only alternative objetifismo be that they live without orientation to reality. A corollary to Rand’s endorsement of self-interest is her rejection of the ethical doctrine of altruism —which she defined in the sense of Auguste Comte ‘s altruism he coined the termas a moral obligation to live for the sake of others. Rand also rejected subjectivism. A “whim-worshiper” or “hedonist,” according to Rand, is not motivated by a desire to live his own human life, but by a wish to live on a sub-human level.

Instead of using “that which promotes my human life” as his standard of value, he mistakes “that which I mindlessly happen to value” for a standard of value, sl contradiction of the fact that, existentially, he is a human and therefore rational organism. The “I value” in whim-worship or hedonism can be replaced with “we value,” “he values,” “they value,” or “God values,” and still it would remain dissociated from reality. Rand repudiated the equation of rational selfishness with hedonistic or whim-worshiping “selfishness-without-a-self.

For Rand, all of the principal virtues are applications of the role of reason as man’s basic tool of survival: Many philosophers have criticized Objectivist ethics.

The philosopher Robert Nozick argues that Rand’s foundational argument in ethics is objeticismo because it does not explain why someone could objetivvismo rationally prefer dying and having no values. He argues that her attempt to defend the morality of selfishness is, therefore, an instance of begging the question.

Nozick also argues that Rand’s solution to David Hume ‘s famous is-ought problem is unsatisfactory. In response, the philosophers Douglas B. E, King criticized Rand’s example of an indestructible robot to demonstrate the value of life as incorrect and confusing. Blair defended Rand’s ethical conclusions, sl maintaining that his arguments might not have been approved by Rand.