The pixel-value differencing (PVD)  scheme provides high imperceptibility to the stego image by selecting two consecutive pixels and. D.-C. Wu and W.-H. Tsai, “A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 24, no. , pp. a stego-image imperceptible to human vision, a novel steganographic approach based on pixel-value differencing is used. In this paper various methods of PVD.
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Liu and Shih [ 5 ] proposed two extensions of the PVD method, the block-based approach and Haar-based approach, and Yang et al. Some studies focused on increasing the capacity [ 358 ] using LSB [ 24 ] or a readjusted process [ 67 ] to improve the embedding capacity or image quantity.
Proposed Scheme In this section, the proposed scheme is described in three parts: In particular, we propose a new technology sgeganographic design the range table. Besides, it offers the advantage of conveying a large number of payloads, while still maintaining the consistency of an image characteristic after data embedding.
Pixel Value Differencing a Steganographic method : A Survey
If is small, then the block is located within the smooth area and will embed less secret data. The second was based on selecting the range widths of [2, 2, 4, 4, 4, 8, 8, 16, 16, 32, 32, 64, 64], to provide high imperceptibility. Therefore, we can guarantee one of the continuous series numbers equals the bits secret data which we want to embed. Therefore, we obtain the average payload and average MSE using the perfect square number, as illustrated in Table 2.
For example,average payload isand the average error is. From This Paper Topics from this paper. Most of the related studies focus on increasing the capacity using LSB and the readjustment process, so their approach is too conformable to the LSB approach. This work designs a new quantization range table based on the perfect square number.
Section 3 presents mtehod scheme on how to create a new quantization table based on the perfect square number, how the embedding procedure works, and how to extract the secret data from the stego image. Pixel Value Differencing a Steganographic method: There are very few studies focusing on the range table design. Repeat Steps 1 — 5 until all secret bits are embedded and the stego image is produced. The width of this steganograpjic is 12, and the embedding bit length is. Steganography Pixel Autoregressive integrated moving average.
A Steganographic Method Based on Pixel-Value Differencing and the Perfect Square Number
Other criteria include embedding capacity and invisibility to human eyes. Obtain the range in whichwhere and are the lower bound and the upper bound of stfganographic, and is the number of embedding bits. Read secret bits from the secret bit stream, and transform it into decimal value.
Search the quantization range table for to determine how many bits will be embedded. Suppose, the probability of distribution is uniform. Repeat until all secret data is completely extracted. The average error for each range is calculated by the following formula: Secret represents bits binary secret data. The grayscale cover image pixel valuewhere is a pixel index.
For each rangeif the width of this range is larger thanthen we divide this range into two subranges: The following two conditions are discussed. This work designs a new quantization range table based on the perfect square number to decide the payload by the difference value between the consecutive pixels.
The pixel-value differencing PVD [ 1 ] scheme provides high imperceptibility to the stego image by selecting two consecutive pixels and designs a quantization range table to determine the payload by the difference value between the consecutive pixels.
The pixel-value fr PVD scheme uses the difference value between two consecutive pixels in a block to determine how many secret bits should be embedded.